EPA vs Vehicle Carbon Emission Credit in General E85 Discussions Posted March 28, 2015 · Report reply Longer refuel range would be a bonus. Something the EPA doesn't care about and doesn't control. Lower cost fuel definitely a bonus as well as the long list of environmental benefits such as air quality, and economics. But, what is the car company motivation to invest in ethanol solutions? Not much. The FFV benefit to CAFE standards is mostly gone. We have cheaper gasoline and nothing in the EPA regulations offers incentive to build efficient E85 vehicles. In fact the lower carbon fuel is penalized per MPG ratings and tax rates based on gallon measure. Imagine if EPA took similar tack on BEV? They are very impracticable, extremely short trip, costly, require huge incentives, have little environmental value upon current grid power, require huge investment in infrastructure, and have very slow growth rate. Most would say a poor solution. Meanwhile E85 is sitting already in hand, requiring little investment in infrastructure. Actually, as we all know an easy task for automotive (once EPA gave up certification wealth) to change entire auto fleet to FFV. The curtain was pulled back last year on what would be possible, per the Cummings E85 engine. Fifty to 60% carbon reductions and 85% reduction with cellulosic fuel. That solution would then be rated top tier, above other solutions in practical reality terms. The accomplishment is within bounds of current technology. Doesn't require much investment other than receiving proper credit for accomplishment. The magic was utilizing diesel compression ratio's, turbocharging, spark ignition, EGR, proper transmission, and down sizing engine. The auto industry knows how to do all these things. Ethanol fuel availability is poised to ramp up quickly given R&D breakthroughs and processing efficiency. The land mass available upon globe is huge. Environmental benefit to wild life, diversity, CO2 conversion, and job creation is huge per this biological solution. How damaging to globe for rare earth metal mining and recycling?