BTW, Shell and other gasoline suppliers advertise quality premium fuel that contains nitrogen. They do this per need to clean up fossil fuel soot and gunk deposits problem as their premium product contains no ethanol. But, adding nitrogen will produce more NOx tailpipe emissions. Better to utilize ethanol for the task as it's a cheaper component and offers benefit to lower carbon emission and lessening of the unhealthy petrol components that raise RVP and octane.
Examples of Flex-Fuel Vehicles (FFVs)
New Cummins Medium Duty Truck Engine Tuned for E85cummins medium duty tuned lower CO2 idle-stop cellulosic
Posted 16 April 2015 - 07:30 AM
The darling of powerful tools to meet Environmental concerns lies directly on the path of optimized E85 engine. Nothing comes close to cellulosic ethanol fueled optimized engine. University of Toronto just published a life cycle analysis of natural gas fuel for automotive. They compared a conventional unleaded vehicle CV to NG. Emissions of the CV vehicle running on natural gas decreased 10-20% as compared to CV running on unleaded. A hybrid CNG CV vehicle decreased emissions 30% and this was comparable to BEV recharged by the grid with the typical natural gas power plant. Problem with the BEV was the vehicle was 30% more expensive to own. So, the Toronto analysis summary was CNG HEV the sweet spot and the only advantage to BEV was to displace pollution away from urban areas. When one throws in the mix the optimized E85 engine rating of decreasing GHG emissions 85% per California standards of the Cummins medium duty van study, game over. Think of the advantage of ethanol engine almost zero particulate rating vs diesel's unhealthy micro carbon particle tailpipe emission. Diesel's expensive SCR pollution equipment to control NOx, is not needed with ethanol. NOx is a factor of nitrogen within intake air and high combustion temperature. While ethanol does have high combustion temperature the engine doesn't require as much intake air per the fuel oxygen content and hence naturally less nitrogen to create NOx. This particular character of ethanol, also, allows engine to achieve better control of NOX control per recirculate of cooled exhaust gas. Actually, exhaust gas can serve two purposed within the engine. Upon cold engine start up, the valve timing can be adjusted to increase hot exhaust within combustion chamber. This will heat intake air, decrease excessive fuel, and eliminate much of the cold start emission problem. Properly tuned spark plugs and ignition that does not need to be tuned to unleaded fuel also a big help.
Secondly, cooled exhaust gas dilution within intake air can mitigate high temperature combustion temps upon high horsepower need. It would act to trim and control excessive power and heat that would produce NOx. Cooling turbo air, also, very productive for both power and control of NOx. Utilizing exhaust gas to trim unneeded fuel is a great mileage trick. Current, FFV technology will squirt ethanol per oxygen sensor demand. This is wasteful, especially with ethanol that carries liquid oxygen on board, but a requirement of low tail pipe emissions. An optimized ethanol engine would recirculate the exhaust to trim oxygen within combustion chamber to exact need of vehicle and driver. The oxygen sensor should always be in balance and not demand over supply of fuel to decrease oxygen level in exhaust. They have similar technology within the natural gas turbine for power plant called DLN. Basically, they utilize a low temperature pre burner to minimize oversupply of oxygen.
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Posted 14 April 2015 - 06:47 AM
Diesel efficiency is suffering per technology to control NOx emissions. Automotive diesel has adapted the lower cost approach of utilizing cooled EGR gas to limit NOx. They utilize an oxygen sensor, throttle plate, and electronic control of cooled exhaust gas to dilute and decrease high temps of exhaust. Up till now diesel had an unfair advantage per emissions as they had no requirement for oxygen sensor and stoichiometric balance of fuel. They could squirt diesel per desired Hp need, problem was they generated much NOx, but given a pass up till current day by EPA. Meanwhile ethanol suffered per SI engine requirement of absolute stoichometric balance of fuel via oxygen sensor detection of O2 in exhaust. This requirement was especially damaging to ethanol as the fuel carried liquid oxygen in which naturally decreased nitrogen percentage within combustion, thus lessening the need for strict exhaust O2 compliance. So, diesel either adapts very expensive exhaust treatment or lowers efficiency to meet Nox emission requirement as compared to ethanol increasing efficiency of the SI engine and natural lower exhaust emission cost. Ethanol has no sulfur within it's pure fuel, but does contain nitrogen. How much the nitrogen content offsets the pure oxygen content per NOx production is unknown, but the optimized ethanol engine has much easier and low cost path to emissions control. Also, the ethanol fueled engine has better ability for NOx control per higher EGR dilution and cool lean burn technology. I would guess the nitrogen within ethanol could be processed or controlled like gasoline is now processed if it were to become a conformance problem. The ethanol optimized engine is looking good from all angles. The torque (max BMEP) as reported by the Cummins test comparison was 2.5x greater as compared to gasoline and Hp or power density 2.7x that of diesel. So, that could translate into, lets say a 500 cc Fiesta, 1L Fusion, or 1.5L Mustang and heavy duty pickup.
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Posted 13 April 2015 - 09:27 AM
Another powerplant choice for truck manufacturers. This is always good. I live in a rural area and
watch farm equipment roll by on the county road each day. It would be good to see some of these be
ethanol powered -- to "close the loop" on renewable fuel generation/use. Not as many trucks going by
as tractors / combine/ other implements -- but at harvest time, lots of trucks loaded with beets , headed to
the processing pile. These trucks have heavy torque needs, and are rolling constantly during the harvest
campaign. Same can be said for support equipment for wheat, corn, sorghum , as trucks make their way into
and out of the fields 24/7 , until end of campaign. Plenty of E85 fuel available here. too.
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Posted 13 April 2015 - 06:08 AM
The Cummins E85 has proven the E85 engine can be highly competitive on a total cost of ownership basis and deliver 50% CO2 emission reduction. Their engine beat unleaded fuel mpg upon the medium duty delivery van tests and E85 is almost always cheaper. Seems like a win win for consumer and environment. Why wouldn't EPA attempt to hit this out of ballpark? Currently, we have set up E85 as a substitute fuel for unleaded gasoline, but the unleaded engine and transmission is physically unfit to unleash the efficiency of ethanol based fuels. Ethanol is well suited to diesel engine per findings of the ETHOS Ultra-Low Carbon Powertrain project. The E85 optimized engine was charted out at 42% max efficiency and usually above 40%. The 2.8 L engine designed per VOC or voice of consumer desires for torque, rpm, and Hp for the 24,000 GVW vans. The consumer wanted high torque at low Rpm. The delivery vans currently have two engine choices of heavy expensive 6.7L diesel long life or inexpensive 6 L unleaded short life. The diesel option has much more than needed low end torque and the unleaded choice has more than needed Hp at high rpm. The Optimized E85 engine better suited to delivery van needs than either of these engines with the durability of diesel. The E85 engine as compared to diesel is 700# lighter, cheaper to manufacturer, and easily meets strict California pollution standards with common catalytic technology. Interestingly, the optimum compression ratio for this application for E85 was 10:1 to 14:1 range. Also, unlike the needs of unleaded engine of hot spark plug to burn off soot deposits, E85 engine requires cooler plugs and has no soot fouling problems. E85 ignites at a lower temperature and should be specified with cooler plug range and gaped specifically for E85. The Cummins engine utilized iridium plugs. Because of fuel character of ethanol the engine never needed enrichment of fuel nor less than optimal ignition timing. The engine could have blasted past Hp generation of unleaded 6L engine, but Cummins decided to detune to keep intake temperature lower as the high engine rpm heated intake air to much through turbo. An intercooler could have solved the problem if needed. Also, the current engine does lose efficiency upon low Hp production, but this could be mitigated per the ethanol fuel's superior fuel character of lean burn and increase of EGR technology. Also, one must take note the emissions would decrease and performance increase per elimination of the unleaded fuel portion. Pure ethanol testing will display a substantial gain in Hp, torque, and lower emissions. After reading the success of the Cummins report, it does become apparent that if given half a chance by regulators the diesel engine manufactures would naturally double their engine offerings by the easy to modify task to E85 fuel. It wouldn't take that much.
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Posted 12 April 2015 - 01:18 PM
When Cummins gets that ready for market- it might just be time to stroll on over to Columbus IN to pick up one for my Jeep LJ.
450 ft lbs of torque- 65 better than the same displacement block they developed for diesel- and while the HP is not listed for the diesel I am sure with the added torque and RPM the E85 allows- far greater HP. I would be able to put 35" tires on and not change from a 3.75 to 1 gear ratio to 4:28 like they do for gassers. Of course the axles just might break under the strain
Posted 08 April 2015 - 02:20 PM
I was out checking out GM's new 5.3L Eco3 Engines, and found something I thought was kinda cool...
Apparently, this engine actually develops more HP and more Torque when running on E85. It's compression ratio is 11:1, which makes me bet the MPG difference is better than you would normally expect.
I'm a Blue Oval guy, but if GM is going to make the vehicles like this, I'm going to really start considering a stroll into a dealership for my next purchase.
Edited by Wintermute, 08 April 2015 - 02:22 PM.
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Posted 15 July 2014 - 09:43 AM
These folks KNOW how to make quality engines... I'd like to see them work out the technology with this engine, then develop a smaller engine to use in light trucks, vans, SUVs... Since Cummins has long worked with Chrysler... would be nice to have in the MiniVan, Dakota trucks and the Jeeps
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2010 Ford Fusion 3.0 liter FFV e85 only!
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